QUANTIZING TIME

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Monday, June 14, 20218:55 AM Welcome and Opening Remarks - Flaminia Giacomini (Perimeter Institute) Alexander Smith (Saint Anselm College & Dartmouth College)Welcome and Opening Remarks
- Flaminia Giacomini (Perimeter Institute)
- Alexander Smith (Saint Anselm College & Dartmouth College)

8:55 AM - 9:00 AM9:00 AM Composite quantum particles as ideal quantum clocks — operational approach to quantum aspects of time - Magdalena Zych (University of Queensland)Composite quantum particles as ideal quantum clocks — operational approach to quantum aspects of time- Magdalena Zych (University of Queensland)

9:00 AM - 9:40 AMIn general relativity time requires an operational description, for example, associated with the reading of an idealised clock following some world line. I will show that in quantum physics idealised clocks can be modelled as composite quantum particles and discuss what foundational insights into the notion of time is enabled by this approach. Moreover, since quantum particles do do not follow classical trajectories a question arises to which extent idealised quantum clocks can be associated with semi-classical paths — in analogy with quantum particles in Gaussian states being associated with semi-classical trajectories? I will show that for quantum clocks semi-classical propagation is not described by Gaussian but by a new class of quantum states derived from a new uncertainty inequality for configuration space rather than for phase space variables of the quantum clock.9:40 AM Kappa-Minkowski: physics with noncommutative time - Flavio Mercati (University of Burgos)Kappa-Minkowski: physics with noncommutative time- Flavio Mercati (University of Burgos)

9:40 AM - 10:20 AMThe kappa-Minkowski noncommutative spacetime has been studied for a long time as an example of quantum spacetime with nontrivial commutation relations between spatial and temporal coordinates which, at first sight, seem to break Poincaré invariance. However kappa-Minkowski is invariant under a Hopf-algebra deformation of the Poincaré group, which involves some noncommutative structures that prevent the sharp localization of reference frames. I will describe recent progress towards the consistent construction of quantum field theories on this spacetime, and the identification of physical predictions that genuinely distinguish kappa-Minkowski from ordinary, commutative Minkowski spacetime.10:20 AM BreakBreak10:20 AM - 10:40 AM10:40 AM Quantizing causation - Robert Spekkens (Perimeter Institute)Quantizing causation- Robert Spekkens (Perimeter Institute)

10:40 AM - 11:20 AM"Spatio-temporal relations are often taken to be more primitive than causal relations. Such a relationship is assumed whenever it is suggested that it is part of the definition of a causal relation that the cause must precede the effect in time. There are good reasons, however, to take causation to be the more primitive notion, with spatio-temporal relations merely describing aspects of causal relations. In such an approach, to understand what possibilities there are for an intrinsically quantum notion of time, it is helpful to understand what possibilities there are for an intrinsically quantum notion of causation. In short, how time is quantized is informed by how causation is quantized. The latter question will be the focus of this talk. I will describe a research program wherein the transition from classical to quantum is understood as an innovation to the notions of causation and inference. This is done by introducing the notion of a causal-inferential theory: a triple consisting of a theory of causal influences, a theory of inferences (of both the Boolean and Bayesian varieties), and a specification of how these interact. The possibility of defining causal-inferential theories by the axioms they satisfy provides a means of providing abstract and structural characterizations of the notions of causation and inference. In other words, within this approach, the new notions of causation and inference will stand to the traditional notions in much the same way that the notions of points and lines in nonEuclidean geometry stand to their traditional counterparts in Euclidean geometry. Based on: D. Schmid, J. Selby, and R. Spekkens, Unscrambling the omelette of causation and inference: The framework of causal-inferential theories, arXiv:2009.03297 (quant-ph)."11:20 AM Non-causal Page-Wootters circuits - Veronika Baumann (IQOQI Vienna)Non-causal Page-Wootters circuits- Veronika Baumann (IQOQI Vienna)

11:20 AM - 12:00 PM"The process matrix framework was invented to capture a phenomenon known as indefinite or quantum causal structure. Due to the generality of that framework, however, for many process matrices there is no clear physical interpretation. A popular approach towards a quantum theory of gravity is the Page-Wootters formalism, which associates to time a Hilbert space structure similar to spatial position. By explicitly introducing a quantum clock, it allows to describe time-evolution of systems via correlations between this clock and said systems encoded in history states. We combine the process matrix framework with a generalization of the Page-Wootters formalism in which one considers several observers, each with their own discrete quantum clock. This allows for implementing processes with indefinite casual order. The description via a history state with multiple clocks imposes constraints on the implementability of process matrices intros framework and on the perspectives of the observers. We describe how to to implement processes were the different definite causal orders are coherently controlled and explain why certain non-causal processes might not be implementable within this setting."12:00 PM LunchLunch12:00 PM - 12:40 PM12:40 PM Quantum reference frames for space and space-time - Časlav Brukner (University of Vienna)Quantum reference frames for space and space-time- Časlav Brukner (University of Vienna)

12:40 PM - 1:20 PMIn physics, a reference frame is an abstract coordinate system that specifies observations within that frame. While quantum states depend on the choice of reference frame, the form of physical laws is assumed to be covariant. Recently, it has been proposed to consider reference frames as physical systems and as such assume that they obey quantum mechanics. In my talk, I will present recent results in the field of "quantum reference frames" (QRF). In particular, I will formulate the covariance of dynamical physical laws with respect to non-relativistic QRF transformations and show how relativistic QRFs can be used to solve a long-standing problem in relativistic quantum information or to address typical quantum gravity scenarios.1:20 PM Discussion Session 1Discussion Session 11:20 PM - 2:00 PM2:00 PM Informal Hang Out Time via RemoInformal Hang Out Time via Remo2:00 PM - 3:00 PM -
Tuesday, June 15, 20219:00 AM A New Perspective on Time Reversal Motivated by Quantum Gravity - Abhay Ashtekar (Pennsylvania State University)A New Perspective on Time Reversal Motivated by Quantum Gravity
- Abhay Ashtekar (Pennsylvania State University)

9:00 AM - 9:40 AMTime Reversal T is usually discussed in the traditional framework of quantum mechanics in which T is represented by an anti-unitary operator. But quantum gravity may well need generalization of standard quantum mechanics which may not preserve even its linear structure, let alone the unitarity of dynamics and anti-unitarity of T. Then the currently used arguments to conclude that T violation is a fundamental aspect of Nature will break down. Fortunately, it turns out that one can analyze the T-violation experiments in a much more general setting, of which classical and quantum mechanics are special cases. The setting does not require a Hilbert space, or linearity of either dynamics or symmetry operations such as T. Nonetheless, somewhat surprisingly, one would still be to use the current experiments to conclude that there is T violation at a fundamental level under rather minimal assumptions on the structure of the final quantum gravity theory.9:40 AM Space and Time in a Lorentzian path integral - Bianca Dittrich (Perimeter Institute)Space and Time in a Lorentzian path integral- Bianca Dittrich (Perimeter Institute)

9:40 AM - 10:20 AMI will present a quantum gravity approach based on a Lorentzian path integral for quantum geometries. The properties of quantum space time can be measured using geometric operators. This allows also to discuss fluctuations of causal structure as well as violations of (micro-) causality. I will explain how the Lorentzian path integral comes with various options regarding which quantum space times to sum over: e.g. whether to include causality violations or not, or whether to allow also for space times with Euclidean signatures in Lorentzian path integrals. I will sketch some consequences for the resulting theories.10:20 AM BreakBreak10:20 AM - 10:40 AM10:40 AM "TIME IN QUANTUM GRAVITY - From the fundamental level to the classical limit" - Claus Kiefer (University of Cologne)"TIME IN QUANTUM GRAVITY - From the fundamental level to the classical limit"- Claus Kiefer (University of Cologne)

10:40 AM - 11:20 AMTime cannot be both absolute (as in quantum mechanics) and dynamical (as in general relativity). I present general arguments for the absence of time at the most fundamental level of quantum gravity. I discuss possible concepts that could replace it and present the recovery of standard time as an approximate concept. My discussion is restricted to quantum geometrodynamics, but I argue for the validity of my conclusions beyond that scheme.11:20 AM The emergence of quantum mechanics and space, from a fundamental, active time - Lee Smolin (Perimeter Institute)The emergence of quantum mechanics and space, from a fundamental, active time- Lee Smolin (Perimeter Institute)

11:20 AM - 12:00 PM"We propose a realist completion of quantum mechanics, in the sense of a complete description of individual events. The proposed fundamental theory assumes that time, events, causal structure, momentum and energy are fundamental. But space and the wave function are emergent. The beables of the theory are the views of the events, which are a subset of their causal pasts. Thus, this theory asserts that the universe is a causal network of events, which consists of partial views of itself as seen by looking backwards from each event. The theory is based on a simple action principle, which extremizes the variety of the universe, which is a measure of the diversity of its partial views. The Schroedinger equation is derived, while to higher order, there are computable corrections, non-linear in the wave function, from which new physical effects may be predicted. Finally, a relativistic version is sketched, in wqhich the views are built on the celestial sphere. "12:00 PM Discussion Session 2Discussion Session 212:00 PM - 12:40 PM12:40 PM Lunch & Conference PhotoLunch & Conference Photo12:40 PM - 3:00 PM -
Wednesday, June 16, 20219:00 AM (Quantum) frame covariance: from foundations via gauge theories to gravity - Philipp Hoehn (University College London)(Quantum) frame covariance: from foundations via gauge theories to gravity
- Philipp Hoehn (University College London)

9:00 AM - 9:40 AMI will sketch how the perspective-neutral approach to (quantum) frame covariance brings together some recent developments on dynamical reference frames in quantum foundations, gauge theories and gravity. The survey will touch on spatial frames, quantum clocks and the problem of time, edge modes, and the relativity of subsystems.9:40 AM Quantum measurements of time - Lorenzo Maccone (University of Pavia)Quantum measurements of time- Lorenzo Maccone (University of Pavia)

9:40 AM - 10:20 AM"We propose a time-of-arrival operator in quantum mechanics by conditioning on a quantum clock. This allows us to bypass some of the problems of previous proposals, and to obtain a Hermitian time of arrival operator whose probability distribution arises from the Born rule and which has a clear physical interpretation. The same procedure can be employed to measure the ""time at which some event happens"" for arbitrary events (and not just specifically for the arrival time of a particle). This talk is based on the paper: L. Maccone, K. Sacha, Quantum measurements of time, Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 110402 (2020)."10:20 AM BreakBreak10:20 AM - 10:40 AM10:40 AM Relative subsystems and quantum reference frame transformations. - Esteban Castro Ruiz (ETH Zurich)Relative subsystems and quantum reference frame transformations.- Esteban Castro Ruiz (ETH Zurich)

10:40 AM - 11:20 AMTransformations between reference frames play a crucial role in our understanding of physical processes. In practice, reference frames are realised by physical systems, which are standardly treated as classical. However, assuming that every physical system is ultimately quantum, it is interesting to ask how a theory of transformations wrt quantum reference frames would look like, and what implications it would have for our description of spacetime. Recently, there has been a lot of effort towards developing a quantum generalisation of reference frame transformations, unveiling novel phenomena that are absent in the classical treatment of reference frames. Here, we develop a first-principles framework for quantum reference frame transformations which clarifies important conceptual issues of previous treatments. Based on the algebra of relative observables between a system and a reference frame, our operational perspective leads naturally to a mixed-state approach (incoherent twirling), in contrast to current pure-state approaches (coherent twirling). Within our framework, the full invariant quantum subsystem contains not only the algebra of relative observables between the system and the reference frame but also an “extra particle,” related to the invariant degrees of freedom of the reference frame itself. Importantly, this extra particle contains information about the “quantumness” of the reference frame and is essential to the unitarity of quantum reference frame transformations. Our approach is general, in the sense that it can be applied to a vast set of symmetry groups and to any type of system. We illustrate the physical meaning of the concepts developed by analysing quantum reference frame transformations with respect to the (centrally extended) Galilei group.11:20 AM Relational dynamics: interacting clocks and systems and quantum time dilation - Mehdi Ahmadi (Santa Clara University)Relational dynamics: interacting clocks and systems and quantum time dilation- Mehdi Ahmadi (Santa Clara University)

11:20 AM - 12:00 PMTime is absolute in quantum mechanics, whereas it is dynamical in general relativity. This is considered as one of the main obstacles towards unifying quantum theory and gravity. Relational quantum dynamics offers a possible solution by treating clocks as internal quantum systems, which promotes time to a dynamical quantity. This talk begins with a quick overview of time in relational quantum dynamics. We then explain that the inclusion of an interaction term coupling the clock and system causes the system dynamics to be governed by a time-nonlocal Schrödinger equation. Moreover, we demonstrate a quantum time dilation phenomena wherein we analyze the effect of non-classical states of quantum clocks on relativistic time dilation.12:00 PM LunchLunch12:00 PM - 12:40 PM12:40 PM The Issue of Time in Generally Covariant Theories - Rodolfo Gambini (Universidad de Montevideo)The Issue of Time in Generally Covariant Theories- Rodolfo Gambini (Universidad de Montevideo)

12:40 PM - 1:20 PMA possible solution of the problem of time in quantum gravitational systems is presented based on a relational description between the parameterized Dirac observables of the system under consideration and the clocks. The use of physical clocks required by a quantum gravitational description of time is shown to induce a loss of unitarity. The evolution is described by a Lindblad-type master equation unless it is possible to construct a perfect clock. I show that fundamental uncertainties in time measurements could arise due to quantum and gravitational effects, leading to the conclusion that there is always a loss of unitarity induced by the use of physical clocks. The extension of the analysis to physical reference frames in totally constrained systems is sketched.1:20 PM Discussion Session 3Discussion Session 31:20 PM - 2:00 PM2:00 PM What can information theory tell us about time? - Renato Renner (ETH Zurich)What can information theory tell us about time?- Renato Renner (ETH Zurich)

2:00 PM - 3:00 PMInformation theory is an invaluable tool for studying questions around the foundations of physics. In thermodynamics, for example, it provides the key to resolving apparent contradictions, such as the famous Maxwell's demon paradox. Conversely, information theory lends itself to the conception of novel paradoxes, such as the black hole information paradox, which helps us sharpening our physical intuition. One may therefore ask whether an information-theoretic perspective can also yield insights on the nature of time. In this talk, I will explain some of the conceptual problems that arise when one tries to capture time with information-theoretic methods, and discuss possible routes to move forward. -
Thursday, June 17, 20219:00 AM Time and Noether's (first) theorem - Harvey Brown (University of Oxford)Time and Noether's (first) theorem
- Harvey Brown (University of Oxford)

9:00 AM - 9:40 AM"It is widely believed that the homogeneity of time is the symmetry related by Noether's (first) theorem to the conservation of energy, and indeed that it explains energy conservation. Both claims are questionable, and in particular seemingly hard to reconcile with the modern version of Noether's first theorem due independently to Martínes Alonso (1979) and Olver (1986). The talk is based on: 'Do symmetries ""explain"" conservation laws? ...' arXiv:2010.10909v1"9:40 AM God does not play dice (He plays sudoku) - Emily Adlam (Basic Research Community for Physics)God does not play dice (He plays sudoku)- Emily Adlam (Basic Research Community for Physics)

9:40 AM - 10:20 AMI argue that modern physics gives us good reason to take seriously the possibility of laws which are non-local, global, or in some other way non-dynamical. I set out a general framework for lawhood which does not presuppose the standard kinematical/dynamical split, and I apply it to the problem of giving a generalized definition of determinism for the non-dynamical context. Finally I make some suggestions about how to draw conclusions about the global structure of the laws of nature from the local observations we are able to make.10:20 AM BreakBreak10:20 AM - 10:40 AM10:40 AM Time in Physics and Intuitionistic Mathematics - Nicolas Gisin (University of Geneva & Schaffhausen Institute of Technology-Geneva)Time in Physics and Intuitionistic Mathematics- Nicolas Gisin (University of Geneva & Schaffhausen Institute of Technology-Geneva)

10:40 AM - 11:20 AM"Physics is formulated in terms of timeless axiomatic mathematics. However, time is essential in all our stories, in particular in physics. For example, to think of an event is to think of something in time. A formulation of physics based of intuitionism, a constructive form of mathematics built on time-evolving processes, would offer a perspective that is closer to our experience of physical reality and may help bridging the gap between static relativity and quantum indeterminacy. Historically, intuitionistic mathematics was introduced by L.E.J. Brouwer with a very subjectivist view where an idealized mathematician continually produces new information by solving conjectures. Here, in contrast, I’ll introduce intuitionism as an objective mathematics that incorporates a dynamical/creative time and an open future. Standard (classical) mathematics appears as the view from the “end of time” and the usual real numbers appear as the hidden variables of classical physics. Similarly, determinism appears as indeterminism seen from the “end of time”. Relativity is often presented as incompatible with indeterminism. Hence, at the end of this presentation I’ll argue that these incompatibility arguments are based on unjustified assumptions and present the “relativity of indeterminacy”. References: C. Posy, Mathematical Intuitionism, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2020. N. Gisin, Indeterminism in Physics, Classical Chaos and Bohmian Mechanics. Are Real Numbers Really Real?, Erkenntnis (2019), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10670-019-00165-8 N. Gisin, Real Numbers are the Hidden Variables of Classical Mechanics, Quantum Studies: Mathematics and Foundations 7, 197-201 (2020). Flavio Del Santo and N. Gisin, Physics without determinism: Alternative interpretations of classical physics, Physical Review A 100.6 (2019). N. Gisin, Mathematical languages shape our understanding of time in physics, Nature Physics 16, 114-119 (2020). N. Gisin Indeterminism in Physics and Intuitionistic Mathematics, arXiv:2011.02348 Flavio Del Santo and N. Gisin, The Relativity of Indeterminacy, arXiv:2101.04134"11:20 AM Measuring time with stationary quantum clocks - Mischa Woods (ETH Zurich)Measuring time with stationary quantum clocks- Mischa Woods (ETH Zurich)

11:20 AM - 12:00 PMTime plays a fundamental role in our ability to make sense of the physical laws in the world around us. The nature of time has puzzled people –- from the ancient Greeks to the present day -– resulting in a long running debate between philosophers and physicists alike to whether time needs change to exist (the so-called relatival theory), or whether time flows regardless of change (the so-called substantival theory). One way to decide between the two is to attempt to measure the flow of time with a stationary clock, since if time were substantival, the flow of time would manifest itself in the experiment. Alas, conventional wisdom suggests that in order for a clock to function, it cannot be a static object, thus rendering this experiment seemingly impossible. We show that counter-intuitively, a quantum clock can measure the passage of time, even while being switched off, lending support for the substantival theory of time.12:00 PM LunchLunch12:00 PM - 12:40 PM12:40 PM Measuring Quantum Discreteness of Time in the Lab with Gravity Entanglement Interference - Carlo Rovelli (Centre de Physique Theorique)Measuring Quantum Discreteness of Time in the Lab with Gravity Entanglement Interference- Carlo Rovelli (Centre de Physique Theorique)

12:40 PM - 1:20 PMThe concrete perspective of using interference to measure Gravity Induced Entanglement in the lab is a very exciting development for quantum gravity. While the measurements considered so far only test the nonrelativistic regime, the same technique might allow access to genuine relativistic quantum effects. Among these, there might be the possibility of direct detection of time quantum discreteness.1:20 PM Discussion Session 4Discussion Session 41:20 PM - 2:00 PM2:00 PM Informal Hang Out Time via RemoInformal Hang Out Time via Remo2:00 PM - 3:00 PM -
Friday, June 18, 20219:00 AM Relational observables and quantum diffeomorphisms on the worldline - Leonardo Chataignier (University of Cologne)Relational observables and quantum diffeomorphisms on the worldline
- Leonardo Chataignier (University of Cologne)

9:00 AM - 9:20 AM"Candidate theories of quantum gravity must answer the questions: how can the dynamics of quantum states of matter and geometry be defined in a diffeomorphism-invariant way? How are the quantum states related to probabilities in the absence of a preferred time? To address these issues, we discuss the construction and interpretation of relational observables in quantum theories with worldline diffeomorphism invariance, which serve as toy models of quantum gravity. In this context, we present a method of construction of quantum relational observables which is analogous to the construction of gauge-invariant extensions of noninvariant quantities in usual gauge (Yang-Mills) theories. Furthermore, we discuss how the notion of a physical propagator may be used to define a unitary evolution in the quantum theory, which is to be understood in terms of a generalized clock, as is the classical theory. We also discuss under which circumstances this formalism can be related to the use of conditional probabilities in a generalization of the Page-Wootters approach. Finally, we also examine how our formalism can be adapted to calculations of quantum-gravitational effects in the early Universe. Refs.: L. Chataignier, Phys. Rev. D 101, 086001 (2020); 103, 026013 (2021); 103, 066005 (2021)"9:20 AM Relational dynamics in an emergent spacetime context - Luca Marchetti (University of Pisa, LMU Munich)Relational dynamics in an emergent spacetime context- Luca Marchetti (University of Pisa, LMU Munich)

9:20 AM - 9:40 AMI discuss the new dimension that the relational approach to the problem of time takes in quantum gravity contexts in which spacetime and geometry are understood as emergent. I argue that, in this case, the relational strategy is best realized at an approximate and effective level, after suitable coarse graining and only in terms of special quantum states. I then show a concrete realization of such effective relational dynamics in the context of a cosmological application of the tensorial group field theory formalism for quantum gravity.9:40 AM Inequivalent clocks in quantum cosmology I - Steffen Gielen (University of Sheffield)Inequivalent clocks in quantum cosmology I- Steffen Gielen (University of Sheffield)

9:40 AM - 10:00 AMQuantum cosmology faces the problem of time: the Universe has no background time, only interacting dynamical degrees of freedom within it. The relational view is to use one degree of freedom (which can be matter or geometry) as a clock for the others. In this talk we discuss a cosmological model of a flat FLRW universe filled with a massless scalar field and a perfect fluid. We study three quantum theories based on three different choices of (relational) clock and show that, if we require the dynamics to be unitary, all three make drastically different predictions regarding resolution of the classical (Big Bang) singularity or a possible quantum recollapse at large volume. The talk is based on [arXiv:2005.05357] and a second paper to appear on arXiv in May 2021. We plan to give two talks: one covering the foundations and general properties of the model, and one showing detailed results and physical interpretation. (We will merge these talks into one if the organisers decide to accept only one talk.)10:00 AM Times of arrival and gauge invariance - Siddhant Das (Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)Times of arrival and gauge invariance- Siddhant Das (Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)

10:00 AM - 10:20 AM"We revisit the arguments underlying two well-known arrival-time distributions in quantum mechanics, viz., the Aharonov-Bohm and Kijowski (ABK) distribution, applicable for freely moving particles, and the quantum flux (QF) distribution. An inconsistency in the original axiomatic derivation of Kijowski’s result is pointed out, along with an inescapable consequence of the “negative arrival times” inherent to this proposal (and generalizations thereof). The ABK free-particle restriction is lifted in a discussion of an explicit arrival-time setup featuring a charged particle moving in a constant magnetic field. A natural generalization of the ABK distribution is in this case shown to be critically gauge-dependent. A direct comparison to the QF distribution, which does not exhibit this flaw, is drawn (its acknowledged drawback concerning the quantum backflow effect notwithstanding). Based on a recent paper (https://arxiv.org/abs/2102.02661), to be published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A."10:20 AM BreakBreak10:20 AM - 10:40 AM10:40 AM What does the Path Integral imply for Quantizing Time? - Ken Wharton (San Jose State University)What does the Path Integral imply for Quantizing Time?- Ken Wharton (San Jose State University)

10:40 AM - 11:00 AM"Even though path-integral formulations of quantum theory are thought to be equivalent to state-based approaches, path-integrals are rarely used to motivate answers to foundational questions. This talk will summarize a number of implications concerning time and time-symmetry which result from the path-integral viewpoint. Such a perspective sheds serious doubt on dynamical collapse theories, and also pushes against efforts to extend configuration space to include multiple time dimensions. A recently-developed map between all possible two-qubit entangled states and spacetime-based path-integrals sheds further doubt on any need to extend spacetime to a large ontological configuration space. (References include arXiv:2103.02425, 1512.00740, 1103.2492 .)"11:00 AM An experiment to detect the Discreteness of time - Marios Christodoulou (The University of Hong Kong)An experiment to detect the Discreteness of time- Marios Christodoulou (The University of Hong Kong)

11:00 AM - 11:20 AMTo this date no empirical evidence contradicts general relativity. In particular, there is no experimental proof a quantum theory of gravity is needed. Surprisingly, it appears likely that the first such evidence would come from experiments that involve non relativistic matter and extremely weak gravitational fields. The conceptual key for this is the Planck mass, a mesoscopic mass scale, and how it relates with what remains of general relativity in the Newtonian limit: time dilation. Indeed, current technological capabilities can amplify differences in time dilation superposition that are much smaller than the smallest time interval that can be measured by an atomic clock. Inspired from recent proposals to detect non--classicality of the gravitational field, we devise and examine the feasibility of an experiment that could detect a granularity of time at the Planck scale.11:20 AM Representing time and time's arrow - Bryan Roberts (London School of Economics & Political Science)Representing time and time's arrow- Bryan Roberts (London School of Economics & Political Science)

11:20 AM - 11:40 AMWhat does it mean to say that a curve in state space describes change with respect to time, as opposed to space or any other parameter? What does it mean to say it's time is asymmetric? Inspired by the Wigner-Bargmann analysis of the Poincaré group, I discuss a general framework for understanding the meaning of time evolution and temporal symmetry in terms of the representation of a semigroup that includes "time translations", amongst the automorphisms of a state space. I discuss the structuralist and functionalist philosophical underpinnings of this view, and show how time reversal, parity, matter-antimatter exchange, and CPT are best viewed as extensions of a representation of continuous symmetries, whose existence is sensitive to the underlying structure of state space. I conclude with some comments on how an arrow of time can be defined in this framework, as well as prospects for such an arrow in the context of gravitation.11:40 AM Arrows of time and locally mediated toy-models of entanglement - Nathan Argaman (NRCN)Arrows of time and locally mediated toy-models of entanglement- Nathan Argaman (NRCN)

11:40 AM - 12:00 PM"Making progress in quantum gravity requires resolving possible tensions between quantum mechanics and relativity. One such tension is revealed by Bell's Theorem, but this relies on relativistic Local Causality, not merely the time-reversal symmetric aspects of relativity. Specifically, it depends on an arrow-of-time condition, taken for granted by Bell, which we call No Future-Input Dependence. One may replace this condition by the weaker Signal Causality arrow-of-time requirement -- only the latter is necessary, both for empirical viability and in order to avoid paradoxical causal loops. There is then no longer any ground to require Local Causality, and Bell's tension disappears. The locality condition which is pertinent in this context instead is called Continuous Action, in analogy with Einstein's ""no action at a distance,"" and the corresponding ""local beables"" are ""spacetime-local"" rather than ""local in space and causal in time."" That such locally mediated mathematical descriptions of quantum entanglement are possible not only in principle but also in practice is demonstrated by a simple toy-model -- a ""local"" description of Bell correlations. Describing general physical phenomena in this manner, including both quantum systems and gravitation, is a grand challenge for the future. [K.B. Wharton and N. Argaman, ""Colloquium: Bell's Theorem and Locally-Mediated Reformulations of Quantum Mechanics,"" Rev. Mod. Phys. 92, 21002 (2020).]"12:00 PM BreakBreak12:00 PM - 12:20 PM12:20 PM Time Symmetry in Decoherence and Stable Facts - Anirban Ganguly (Aix-Marseille Université)Time Symmetry in Decoherence and Stable Facts- Anirban Ganguly (Aix-Marseille Université)

12:20 PM - 12:40 PMIt has been previously discussed how events (interactions) in quantum mechanics are time-symmetric and an arrow of time is only due to the arrow of inference in the paper “Quantum information and the arrow of time”, arXiv:2010.05734 by Andrea Di Biagio, Pietro Dona, and Carlo Rovelli. In the relational interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, these interactions are relative facts. Stable facts result from relative facts through the process of decoherence as shown in the paper "Di Biagio, A., Rovelli, C., Foundations of Physics 51, 30 (2021)". They are separate from observed facts in laboratories due to the reason that they do not depend on a decision-making agent for their creation. In my talk, I will discuss my work with Carlo Rovelli and Andrea Di Biagio where we show that the process of decoherence and the notion of stability of facts is indeed time-symmetric. This is in contrast to the observed facts of our everyday world where an arrow of time emerges due to the presence of agents and traces.12:40 PM Hierarchy of Theories with Indefinite Causal Structures: A Second Look at the Causaloid Framework - Nitica Sakharwade (Perimeter Institute)Hierarchy of Theories with Indefinite Causal Structures: A Second Look at the Causaloid Framework- Nitica Sakharwade (Perimeter Institute)

12:40 PM - 1:00 PM"The Causaloid framework [1] is useful to study Theories with Indefinite Causality; since Quantum Gravity is expected to marry the radical aspects of General Relativity (dynamic causality) and Quantum Theory (probabilistic-ness). To operationally study physical theories one finds the minimum set of quantities required to perform any calculation through physical compression. In this framework, there are three levels of compression: 1) Tomographic Compression, 2) Compositional Compression and 3) Meta Compression. We present a diagrammatic representation of the Causaloid framework to facilitate exposition and study Meta compression. We show that there is a hierarchy of theories with respect to Meta compression and characterise its general form. Next, we populate the hierarchy. The theory of circuits forms the simplest case, which we express diagrammatically through Duotensors, following which we construct Triotensors using hyper3wires (hyperedges connecting three operations) for the next rung in the hierarchy. Finally, we discuss the implications for the field of Indefinite Causality. [1] Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, 40(12), 3081"1:00 PM Interaction and Evolution in Classical and Quantum Physics, and Indefinite Causal Structure - Erik Curiel (Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy )Interaction and Evolution in Classical and Quantum Physics, and Indefinite Causal Structure- Erik Curiel (Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy )

1:00 PM - 1:20 PMIn classical mechanics, the representations of dynamical evolutions of a system and those of interactions the system can have with its environment are different vector fields on the space of states: evolutions and interactions are conceptually, physically and mathematically different in classical physics, and those differences arise from the generic structure of the very dynamics of classical systems ("Newton's Second Law"). Correlatively, there is a clean separation of the system's degrees of freedom from those of its environment, in a sense one can make precise. I present a theorem showing that these features allow one to reconstruct the entire flat affine 4-dimensional geometry of Newtonian spacetime---the dynamics is inextricably tied to the underlying spacetime structure. In quantum theory (QT), contrarily, the representations of possible evolutions and interactions with the environment are exactly the same vector fields on the space of states ("add another self-adjoint operator to the Hamiltonian and exponentiate"): there is no difference between "evolution" and "interaction" in QT, at least none imposed by the structure of the dynamics itself. Correlatively, in a sense one can make precise, there is no clean separation of the system's degrees of freedom from those of the environment. Finally, there is no intrinsic connection between the dynamics and the underlying spacetime structure: one has to reach in and attach the dynamics to the spacetime geometry by hand, a la Wigner (e.g.). How we distinguish interaction from evolution in QT and how we attach the dynamics to a fixed underlying spacetime structure come from imposing classical concepts foreign to the theory. Trying to hold on to such a distinction is based on classical preconceptions, which we must jettison if we are to finally come to a satisfying understanding of QT. These observatons offer a way to motivate and make sense of, inter alia, the idea of indefinite causal structures.1:20 PM Goodbye & Closing Remarks - Flaminia Giacomini (Perimeter Institute) Alexander Smith (Saint Anselm College & Dartmouth College)Goodbye & Closing Remarks- Flaminia Giacomini (Perimeter Institute)
- Alexander Smith (Saint Anselm College & Dartmouth College)

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